Stem cells are primarily our physique’s uncooked supplies—cells that give rise to all different cells and tissues with specialised capabilities. The conversion into particular cells happens by way of a course of known as “differentiation,” through which stem cells divide to type daughter cells. This lends itself to sensible functions in regenerative remedy, the place purposeful wholesome cells generated from stem cells can be utilized to remedy accidents and mobile damages in our physique.
Nonetheless, issues are simpler stated than executed. Performing stem cell differentiation within the laboratory requires meticulous preparation and addition of differentiation components right into a cell cultivation medium, a laborious and time-consuming course of. Furthermore, it’s largely reliant on the researcher’s talent. In mild of this, a brand new platform that facilitates a steady provide of differentiation components over an extended interval is very fascinating.
In a brand new research, researchers from Korea, led by Affiliate Professor Tae-Hyung Kim of college of integrative engineering at Chung-Ang college, got here up with an ingenious resolution. They developed a novel platform primarily based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), hybrid crystalline porous supplies constructed utilizing metallic ions and natural ligands (ions/molecules hooked up to the metallic ion). As a result of their porous nature, MOFs are glorious for trapping and releasing molecules of curiosity over an extended time frame. This gave the group the concept to make use of MOFs for storing and releasing biocompatible nanoparticles crucial for stem cell differentiation. This paper was revealed in Science Advances.
Of their research, the group selected neural stem cells as a proof of idea and embedded nanoparticles loaded with retinoic acid, an integral part for neuronal differentiation, into the nanocrystalline MOF, nUiO-67. There was, nonetheless, one difficulty to be thought-about. “Including nanoparticles on to the cell cultivation medium might trigger issues of safety when used for therapeutic functions and may also trigger injury to the nanoparticle constructions owing to the presence of redox enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the intracellular surroundings,” explains Dr. Kim.
To get round this downside, the group separated the stem cells from MOFs by creating periodic sample of nanopit arrays utilizing a method known as “laser interference lithography.”
By optimizing these nanopit arrays such that every array captured a single MOF, the group got here up with the platform known as “single metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticle–embedded nanopit arrays (SMENA)” that would robotically convert stem cells into neurons.
SMENA supplied two huge benefits over the standard methodology for in vitro stem cell differentiation. Firstly, it obviated all of the advanced experimental steps and typical points associated to cell contamination and batch-to-batch variation. Secondly, and surprisingly, the continual and steady provide of differentiation components made for accelerated differentiation, leading to roughly 40-fold larger expression of neuronal cell markers (indicating the technology of neurons) in comparison with that for traditional protocols.
These findings have excited the group in regards to the future prospects of SMENA. “The platform developed in our research might facilitate and speed up using numerous stem cell sources for medical functions and drug screening. The purposeful cells produced by way of SMENA can be utilized to deal with numerous ailments and issues, together with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s ailments,” speculates Dr. Kim. The paper was additionally just lately featured as a analysis spotlight in Nature Critiques Supplies.
Yeon-Woo Cho et al, Single metal-organic framework–embedded nanopit arrays: A brand new method to management neural stem cell differentiation, Science Advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abj7736
Chung Ang College
Researchers use biomolecule-loaded metal-organic frameworks nanopatterns to assist synthetic stem cell differentiation (2022, June 9)
retrieved 11 June 2022
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